The demand, usage, and popularity of the subfield of machine learning / artificial intelligence have hugely increased in the past decades without a doubt. It’s no news that Big Data is currently the most sought-after trend in the tech sector.
Machine learning is potent, having the ability to execute predictions or estimated suggestions based on the significant amounts of data.
Some of the examples of machine learning are the algorithms’ in Amazons that suggest or recommend books based on the previously purchased books or the movie suggestions from Netflix based on the already watched movie.
What are the types of Machine Learning?
Machine learning algorithms can be divided into three full categories which are:
- Supervised Learning
Supervised learning is beneficial in situations where a property (tag) is available for a specific dataset (training set), but is lost and requires to be predicted for other instances.
- Unsupervised Learning
Unsupervised learning is beneficial in situations where the difficulty is to find implicit relationships in a given untagged dataset (items that are not pre-assigned)
- Reinforcement Learning
Reinforcement learning is in between these two powerful learning. There are a few forms of feedback available for every predictive stage or action, but no exact tag or error message.
Here are 10 types of Machine Learning –
1. Principal Component Analysis (PCA)/SVD
It enables you to decrease the dimension of the data, losing a little amount of information. It is used in several areas, like object recognition, computer vision, data compression, etc.
The computation of the principal components is decreased to calculate the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the primary data covariance matrix or to the singular decomposition of the data matrix.
2. Least Squares and Polynomial Fitting / Constrained Linear Regression
The process of least squares is a mathematical method used in solving several problems, that is based on reducing the sum of squares of deviations of some functions from the desired variables.
It can be used to match simple curves/regressions. It is also used to “solve” overdetermined systems of equations (when the number of equations surpasses the number of unknowns).
To seek for solutions in the case of ordinary (not overdetermined) nonlinear systems of equations, also to approximate the point values of a specific function.
Constrained Linear Regression
The least-squares method can flummox overshoots, false fields, etc. Restrictions are required to minimize the variance of the line added in the data set. The accurate solution is to match the linear regression model, which confirms that the weights do not act “badly.”
Models can either be L1 (LASSO) or L2 (Ridge Regression) or both (elastic regression).
This algorithm can be used to match regression lines with constraints, shun overriding.
3. K-Means Clustering
The k-means algorithm is the simplest and somewhat incorrect clustering method in the classical implementation. It divides the set of elements of a vector space into a formerly identified number of clusters K.
The algorithm inquires to reduce the standard deviation at the points of every cluster. The fundamental idea is that at every variation, the center of mass is re-estimated for every cluster acquired in the late stage.
The vectors are split into clusters again in line, which of the new centers was closer in the chosen metric. The algorithm breaks off when no cluster changes at any variation.
4. Logistic Regression
Logistic regression is restricted to linear regression with non-linearity after adding weights. Thus, the output limit is close to + / — classes (i.e., equals 1 and 0 in the case of sigmoid). Cross-entropy loss functions are enhanced using the gradient descent approach.
It is mainly used for classification, not regression. In general, it is comparable to a single-layer neural network. Learned using optimization methods like gradient descent or L-BFGS. NLP developers frequently use it, calls it the maximum entropy classification method.
5. Support Vector Machines (SVM)
It is a linear model, like the linear/logistic regression. The different thing is that it has a margin-based loss function. You can enhance the loss function using optimization methods, for instance, L-BFGS or SGD. It can be used to train classifiers and regressors.
The unusual thing is that it can study classifier classifiers.
6. Feed-Forward Neural Networks
These are multi-level logistic regression classifiers. Various layers of scales are split by non-linearities (sigmoid, tanh, relu + softmax, and fresh new sell).
They are also referred to as multilayer perceptrons. It is used for categorizing and also learning without a tutor as autoencoders. It can also be used to train a classifier or extract functions like autoencoders.
7. Convolutional Neural Networks
Jan Lekun invented it in the early 1990s. Forces of convolutional neural networks accomplished almost every latest accomplishment in the sector of machine learning. They are used for image classification and object detection. Networks have convolutional layers that behave as hierarchical object extractors. It can be used for working with text and also for graphics.
8. Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs)
It’s model sequences are used by applying the exact set of weights recursively to the state of aggregator at time and input. Currently, Pure RNNs are hardly used, but its analogs, for instance, LSTM and GRU, are the most updated in most sequence modeling issues.
It can be used for any task of text classification, machine translation, and language modeling.
9. Conditional Random Fields (CRFs)
They are used to model a sequence such as RNN and can be used alongside an RNN. They can also be used in other works of structured prediction, for instance, in image segmentation.
CRFs Models every element of the sequence so that the neighbors’ influence the tag of the component in the course, and not every tag that is independent of one other.
It can be used for sequences of sequences, i.e., in text, image, time series, DNA, etc.
10. Decision Trees
It is used in statistics and data analysis for predictive models. The structure portrays the “leaves” and “branches.” Characteristics of the objective function rely on the “branches” of the decision tree.
The values of the objective function are stored in the “leaves,” and the remaining nodes contain characteristics for which the situation differs. It is also one of the most common machine learning algorithms.
To categorize a new case, you have to go down the tree to the leaf and provide a suitable value. The goal is to develop a model that predicts the value of the target variable based on various input variables.
The question most people ask is that, what is the best algorithm to use? Is it sure to concentrate on a precise algorithm and not to regard the others? Well, the best answer to the questions is that it is based on the circumstances.
It implies that, for instance, one cannot state that neural networks regularly work effectively than decision trees, and vice versa. The efficiencies of algorithms are affected by several factors, like the size and structure of the data set and more. So, do not anticipate to jump into the best algorithm, because it doesn’t exist.
But, it would help if you tried various algorithms, to check the efficiencies of each of them on the test data set, and then select the best algorithm that suits your task.